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Billy R. Hammond, Thomas A. Ciulla, D. Max Snodderly; Macular Pigment Density Is Reduced in Obese Subjects. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2002;43(1):47-50.
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purpose. Because of the potential protective function of lutein (L) and
zeaxanthin (Z) within the retina and lens, a better understanding of
factors influencing tissue deposition is needed. The largest fractions
of L and Z are stored in adipose tissue. Thus, higher body fat content
and body mass index (BMI) may be expected to influence the quantities
of L and Z in the retina (measured as macular pigment optical density,
methods. Six hundred eighty subjects were tested. Information on MPOD, body mass
index (BMI), body fat percentage (n = 400, using
bioelectric impedance), dietary intake (n = 280, using a
food frequency questionnaire), and serum carotenoid content (n= 280, using reversed phase high-performance liquid
chromatography) was obtained.
results. There was an inverse relationship between MPOD and BMI (n= 680, r = −0.12, P <
0.0008) and between MPOD and body fat percentage (n = 400, r = −0.12, P < 0.01).
These relationships were largely driven by data from the subjects with
higher BMI (more than 29, 21% less MP) and higher body fat percentage
(more than 27%, 16% less MP). Dietary carotenoid intake and serum
carotenoid levels were also lower in subjects with higher BMI (n= 280).
conclusions. Obese subjects tend to have lower retinal L and Z. This reduction may
be due to decreased dietary intake of L and Z and/or competition
between retina and adipose tissue for uptake of L and
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