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Tsutomu Sakai, Geoffrey P. Lewis, Kenneth A. Linberg, Steven K. Fisher; The Ability of Hyperoxia to Limit the Effects of Experimental Detachment in Cone-Dominated Retina. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2001;42(13):3264-3273. doi: https://doi.org/.
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purpose. To determine the ability of oxygen supplementation to ameliorate the
effects of retinal detachment in a cone-dominated retina.
methods. Retinal detachments were created in the right eyes of ground squirrels
and the animals immediately placed in normoxic (room air) or hyperoxic
(70% oxygen) conditions for 3 days. The retinas were sampled from
different regions and investigated morphologically or
immunocytochemically by light or confocal microscopy. Agarose embedded
sections were immunostained with antibody probes to cytochrome oxidase,
synaptophysin, medium-to-long wavelength–sensitive (M/L) cone opsin,
rod opsin, excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1), glutamate
synthetase (GS), cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP), and
peanut agglutinin (PNA) lectin. Retinal wholemounts were labeled with
PNA and antibodies to short (S)-wavelength–sensitive cone opsin and
rod opsin. Cell death was examined using a TUNEL assay on agarose
sections or using toluidine blue staining on semithin sections.
results. The percentage of dying cells relative to the total nuclei in the
photoreceptor layer was significantly reduced, and the total number of
nuclei was greater in hyperoxic animals. Triple labeling using TUNEL,
anti-M/L cone opsin and anti-rod opsin showed that hyperoxia had a
remarkable effect both on the reduction of cone cell death and the
maintenance of the overall structure of cone photoreceptors. Analysis
of the retinal wholemounts demonstrated the preservation of PNA,
S-cone, and rod opsin antibody labeling in the detachments maintained
in hyperoxic conditions. Although the disruption of cytochrome oxidase
and synaptophysin was seen in normoxic animals, there was minimal
disruption in hyperoxic animals. Labeling with anti-EAAT1, anti-GS, and
anti-CRALBP was increased in the Müller cells of normoxic animals
with detachments, but was decreased in the hyperoxic animals.
conclusions. Hyperoxia prevents the degeneration of both rods and cones in retinas
heavily dominated by cones and mitigates the effect of detachment on
Müller cell reactivity. The current results suggest that the
rescue of cones is not secondary to that of
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