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Shinichi Sakurai, Shahabuddin Alam, Glorivee Pagan-Mercado, Fatimah Hickman, Jen-Yue Tsai, Peggy Zelenka, Sanai Sato; Retinal Capillary Pericyte Proliferation and c-Fos mRNA Induction by Prostaglandin D2 through the cAMP Response Element. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2002;43(8):2774-2781.
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purpose. Cycloxygenase inhibitors have been shown to prevent angiogenesis in some circumstances, suggesting that growth of capillary pericytes or endothelial cells may be regulated by prostaglandins (PGs). The present study tests the effects of PGs on the growth of human retinal capillary pericytes.
methods. Cell growth was assayed by formazan formation and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. The expression of mRNAs corresponding to c-fos, PG receptors, and VEGF was examined by RT-PCR. Signal transduction was evaluated by immunoblot analysis using phosphospecific antibodies against mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and cAMP response element–binding protein (CREB). Synthesis of cAMP was inhibited with the adenyl cyclase inhibitor SQ22536. A reporter gene (luciferase) assay was conducted using the expression vector pSVOAΔ5′ containing the 379-bp c-fos promoter with and without a mutation in cAMP response element (CRE).
results. PGD2 treatment induced c-fos mRNA, stimulated pericyte growth, and increased expression of VEGF mRNA. PGE2 and -F2α had similar effects on c-fos induction and pericyte growth, whereas PGI2 was ineffective. RT-PCR confirmed that mRNAs corresponding to the receptors for PGD2, -E2, -F2α, and -I2 were expressed in human retinal pericytes. Stimulation by PGD2 led to phosphorylation of CREB, but had negligible effect on phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK. The adenylyl cyclase inhibitor inhibited CREB activation and c-fos induction by PGD2. In a reporter gene assay, c-fos induction occurred only with wild-type c-fos promoter. Mutation in CRE eliminated the response to PGD2.
conclusions. PGD2 promotes the growth of retinal capillary pericytes by signaling through cAMP and CREB. The findings underscore the importance of PGs in the growth of human retinal capillary pericytes and raise the possibility that PGs may play a role in proliferative retinopathies.
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