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Allison M. McKendrick, Andrew J. Anderson, Chris A. Johnson, Brad Fortune; Appearance of the Frequency Doubling Stimulus in Normal Subjects and Patients with Glaucoma. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003;44(3):1111-1116. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.01-1251.
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purpose. To determine whether the spatial structure of the frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry stimulus is visible at detection-contrast threshold in normal observers and those with glaucoma and to assess its perceived spatial frequency at threshold and suprathreshold contrast.
methods. Three subject groups were assessed: 10 young normal observers (aged <40 years), 10 older normal observers (aged >50 years), and 10 subjects with glaucoma. Detection thresholds for centrally and eccentrically presented 10° squares, 0.25-cyc/deg, 25-Hz counterphase flicker sine-wave gratings were obtained by using a yes-no staircase procedure. Eccentric locations were in areas of loss of FDT sensitivity (≤21°) in subjects with glaucoma, or at 7° or 21° inferonasally in normal observers. Resolution-contrast thresholds were determined by a two-alternative, forced-choice staircase procedure in which subjects selected the orientation of the grating stimulus tilted at ±45°. Perceived spatial frequency was determined by having subjects alter the spatial frequency of a temporally interleaved stationary sine-wave grating to match the FDT stimulus.
results. No significant difference was found between detection- and resolution-contrast thresholds, implying that spatial structure was visible at detection threshold. In general, subjects perceived the spatial structure to have a spatial frequency closer to doubled than to veridical, although the young normal subjects reported a lower apparent spatial frequency than older individuals.
conclusions. When instructed as for clinical testing, subjects respond to the presence of the structure of the grating, and perceive the FDT stimulus to have a spatial frequency greater than its true spatial frequency. These findings were consistent across both normal observers and those with glaucoma, at both central and eccentric test locations.
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