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Wolfram Eichler, Ulrike Friedrichs, Alexander Thies, Corinna Tratz, Peter Wiedemann; Modulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase and TIMP-1 Expression by Cytokines in Human RPE Cells. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2002;43(8):2767-2773.
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purpose. The balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) is crucial for homeostasis of ocular extracellular matrices. To assess altered MMP activity as a determinant in the migration of human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, expression characteristics of several MMPs and TIMP-1 in RPE cell cultures were investigated.
methods. Expression studies were performed with RT-PCR, ELISA, and immunofluorescence analysis. Secretion of MMP-2 was demonstrated by zymography. Migration of cytokine-stimulated RPE cells was evaluated with microporous membranes of permeable chambers.
results. MMP-1, -2, -3, and -9; MT2-MMP; and TIMP-1 were expressed in cultured RPE cells. MMP-2 was detected on the cell surface and in secreted inactive and active forms. TGF-β2, IL-1β, and TNF-α enhanced secretion of MMP-1, -2, and -3. TGF-β2 also stimulated MT2-MMP cell surface expression and release of TIMP-1. The mRNA levels of MMP-1, -2, and -3 and TIMP-1 were markedly increased by TNF-α and TGF-β2. MMP-2 mRNA levels were also upregulated by PDGF-BB. Migration of RPE cells stimulated by TGF-β2 or PDGF-BB was inhibited in presence of a synthetic MMP inhibitor.
conclusions. Proinflammatory cytokines and TGF-β2 play an important role in the upregulation of expression of MMP-1, -2, and -3 in RPE cells and account for a directional shift in the balance between MMPs and TIMPs. Facilitation of RPE cell migration stimulated by cytokines (i.e., TGF-β2 or PDGF-BB) in ocular diseases may be due to increased release of MMPs, in the presence of comparatively lower levels of their inhibitors.
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