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Itay Chowers, Yoonhee Kim, Ronald H. Farkas, Tushara L. Gunatilaka, Abigail S. Hackam, Peter A. Campochiaro, Silvia C. Finnemann, Donald J. Zack; Changes in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Gene Expression Induced by Rod Outer Segment Uptake. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004;45(7):2098-2106. doi: 10.1167/iovs.03-0863.
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purpose. Rod outer segment (ROS) uptake, a crucial function of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), probably involve multiple proteins, yet only a small number have so far been identified. The goal of this study was to find additional genes involved in ROS uptake and degradation by identifying ROS-induced gene expression changes.
methods. Human RPE-derived ARPE-19 cells were harvested 3 and 12 hours after addition of bovine ROS. Gene expression profiles were compared with control cultures by using a custom human retina cDNA microarray and were validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (QPCR). ROS binding and internalization were quantitated with a fluorescence assay.
results. Alterations in the expression levels of multiple genes (especially ones involved in transcriptional regulation, signal transduction, or protein modification) were detected 3 hours after ROS challenge, whereas by 12 hours most had returned to baseline. QPCR results corroborated the microarray results for seven of the eight genes tested. Time-course QPCR experiments on an independent sample set demonstrated characteristic temporal expression changes for each gene. Protein levels of one of these, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), were tested and found to parallel the mRNA changes. In addition, exogenous PAI-1 inhibited ROS uptake by RPE cells in vitro, consistent with its putative function in integrin receptor regulation.
conclusions. ROS uptake is associated with regulation of multiple RPE genes in a gene-specific temporal pattern. These genes are candidates for involvement in ROS uptake and degradation, particularly PAI-1, for which the study provided evidence suggesting that it may participate in the negative feedback of ROS uptake.
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