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Karen Holopigian, Vivienne C. Greenstein, William Seiple, Donald C. Hood, Ronald E. Carr; Rod and Cone Photoreceptor Function in Patients with Cone Dystrophy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004;45(1):275-281. doi: 10.1167/iovs.03-0627.
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purpose. To determine the extent of rod and cone photoreceptor dysfunction in patients with cone dystrophy using psychophysical and electrophysiological tests.
methods. Ten patients with cone dystrophy participated. Rod and cone system psychophysical thresholds were measured as a function of retinal eccentricity. Bright-flash full-field electroretinograms were obtained under dark-adapted (rod-mediated) and light-adapted (cone-mediated) conditions. The a-wave data were fitted with a model based on photopigment transduction to obtain values for log R max (maximum response) and log S (sensitivity). b-Wave parameters were also examined by fitting a nonlinear, saturating function (the Naka-Rushton equation) to the rod-mediated responses. Oscillatory potentials were measured to the cone-mediated high-intensity flashes.
results. On average, the rod-mediated psychophysical thresholds were elevated by 0.5 log unit. These threshold elevations did not differ significantly with retinal eccentricity. In contrast, cone-mediated psychophysical thresholds were elevated up to 3.0 log units. Threshold elevation was greatest in the central retinal locations. For rod-mediated conditions, the a-wave R max parameter was significantly reduced in three patients; the a-wave log S parameter was within normal limits. The rod-mediated b-wave R max parameter was reduced in six patients; log k was abnormal in one patient. For cone-mediated conditions, the a-wave R max parameter was reduced in six patients and the a-wave log S parameter was reduced in two patients. The cone system oscillatory potentials were abnormal in nine patients.
conclusions. Patients with cone dystrophy show different patterns of psychophysical rod versus cone system sensitivity losses with retinal eccentricity. The full-field electrophysiological data indicate that most of the patients had abnormal cone photoreceptor function. Some patients also showed rod photoreceptor abnormalities. The rod system changes were smaller than the cone system changes.
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