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Robert A. Sack, Lenard Conradi, David Krumholz, Ann Beaton, Sonal Sathe, Carol Morris; Membrane Array Characterization of 80 Chemokines, Cytokines, and Growth Factors in Open- and Closed-Eye Tears: Angiogenin and Other Defense System Constituents. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(4):1228-1238. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.04-0760.
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purpose. To adapt membrane-bound antibody array (MA) technology to characterize the distribution of a wide range of bioactive trace proteins in reflex (RTF) and open-eye (OTF) and closed-eye (CTF) tear samples.
methods. Tears were collected by capillary tube and centrifuged. A commercially available standard MA and a custom array were modified to maximize the sensitivity of detection and the signal-to-noise ratio, to assay RTF and individually pooled CTF and OTF samples for 80 chemokines, growth factors, cytokines, and angiogenic modulators. The reliability of data was assessed by Western blot and other methods.
results. Coupling an ultrasensitive chemiluminescence substrate system to an MA and optimizing conditions enhanced the sensitivity several hundredfold, allowing the detection of ∼40 of the 79 probed proteins on the standard array, most of which were shown to be elevated in CTF. Identified entities include the known constituents epidermal growth factor (EGF), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-8, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and -2, and numerous previously undetected tear components, such as angiogenin (ANG), growth factors, and the CXC and CC chemokines IFN-γ inducible protein (IP)-10, growth-related oncogene (GRO), epithelial neutrophil-activating protein (ENA)-78, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3α. Identification of other proteins was hindered by high background on the negative control array. Using a less complex custom array dramatically reduced background and allowed the visualization in CTF of proteins, such as VEGF, that were not detected with the standard array.
conclusions. MAs are powerful tools for differential screening of tears for large numbers of trace proteins. Analysis allowed the identification of previously undetected proteins that may participate in the host defense system as well as demonstrated the profound change in tear composition associated with prolonged eye closure in a manner reflective of physiological function.
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