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Bupe R. Mwaikambo, Florian Sennlaub, Huy Ong, Sylvain Chemtob, Pierre Hardy; Activation of CD36 Inhibits and Induces Regression of Inflammatory Corneal Neovascularization. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006;47(10):4356-4364. doi: 10.1167/iovs.05-1656.
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purpose. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of the antiangiogenic receptor CD36 during inflammatory corneal neovascularization (CNV).
methods. In a murine model of inflammatory CNV, CD36 expression was evaluated by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Mice subjected to CNV were treated topically (thrice daily) with CD36 functionally neutralizing antibodies against the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and thrombospondin (TSP)-1 sites (clones JC63.1 and FA6-152, respectively). Neovascularization was analyzed by CD31-immunostained corneal flatmounts. The role of the less characterized oxLDL site during angiogenesis was elucidated by using the CD36 ligand 1-palmitoyl 2-(5′-oxovaleroyl) phosphatidylcholine (POVPC; 50, 100 μg/mL) 24 hours after corneal injury for 7 days, whereas in angioregressive studies, POVPC treatments were initiated 10 days after induction of CNV. In this process, VEGF expression was also studied. Effects of CD36 activation were further examined ex vivo using the mouse aortic ring assay.
results. CD36 expression was upregulated after corneal injury; CD36 was expressed in corneal epithelium, limbus, invading microvessels, and stromal macrophages. Blocking CD36 activity with FA6-152 significantly increased CNV (P <0.001). Conversely, activating CD36 with POVPC dose dependently inhibited CNV (P = 0.003); this effect was blocked by JC61.3. POVPC also significantly regressed preformed blood vessels (P < 0.001). Ex vivo experiments on aortic rings confirmed the angioinhibitory and -regressive effects of POVPC. Because corneal macrophages express CD36 and may partake in angiogenesis via VEGF-A secretion, we surmised that VEGF-A could be modulated by CD36. Indeed, POVPC downregulated VEGF-A expression in a time-dependent fashion (P < 0.001), whereas FA6-152 induced its expression (P < 0.05).
conclusions. CD36 is involved both physiologically and pharmacologically in inhibition and regression of CNV, by direct effect on endothelial cells and partly by negatively regulating VEGF expression in macrophages.
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