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Tong Li, Howard C. Howland; Role of the Pineal Gland in Ocular Development of the Chick in Normal and Constant Light Conditions. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006;47(11):5132-5136. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.05-0671.
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purpose. To evaluate the role of the pineal gland in development of the chick eye in normal and constant light (CL) conditions.
methods. Chicks (Gallus gallus) were raised in either a 12-hour light–dark cycle (12L/12D) or in CL, with or without opaque, removable hoods that covered the top of the head for 12 hours each day. An additional group was raised with opaque eye occluders over the right eye for 12 hours daily. Half of the chicks in each group had their pineal glands surgically removed at 3 to 6 days after hatching. Corneal curvature was measured with keratometry, anterior chamber depth with ultrasound, and refraction with infrared photoretinoscopy.
results. Pinealectomy does not affect the development of the chick eyes either in 12L/12D or CL. Covering the right eyes provided the same amount protection against CL’s effects on the corneal curvature of both eyes, with or without pinealectomy. Pinealectomized chicks were not protected from CL’s effects by 12L/12D head covers. A similar pattern of responses was obtained for refraction and anterior chamber depth.
conclusions. Although 12L/12D covering of the pineal gland can protect chick eyes from CL’s effects (corneal flattening, shallowing of the anterior chamber, and hyperopia), the pineal gland does not appear to be necessary for normal growth in 12L/12D conditions, and its absence does not affect eye growth in CL conditions, with or without hoods or occluders. Pinealectomy does not influence the protection of an eye exposed to CL that is afforded by covering the other eye in a 12L/12D cycle.
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