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Jane E. Gwiazda, Leslie Hyman, Thomas T. Norton, Mohamed E. M. Hussein, Wendy Marsh-Tootle, Ruth Manny, Ying Wang, Donald Everett; Accommodation and Related Risk Factors Associated with Myopia Progression and Their Interaction with Treatment in COMET Children. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004;45(7):2143-2151. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.03-1306.
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purpose. To examine baseline measurements of accommodative lag, phoria, reading distance, amount of near work, and level of myopia as risk factors for progression of myopia and their interaction with treatment over 3 years, in children enrolled in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET).
methods. COMET enrolled 469 ethnically diverse children (ages, 6–11 years) with myopia between −1.25 and −4.50 D. They were randomly assigned to either progressive addition lenses (PALs) with a +2.00 addition (n = 235) or single vision lenses (SVLs; n = 234), the conventional spectacle treatment, and were observed for 3 years. The primary outcome measure was progression of myopia by autorefraction after cycloplegia with 2 drops of 1% tropicamide. Other measurements included accommodative response (by an open field of view autorefractor), phoria (by cover test), reading distance, and hours of near work. Independent and interaction analyses were based on the mean of the two eyes. Results were adjusted for important covariates with multiple linear regression.
results. Children with larger accommodative lags (>0.43 D for a 33 cm target) wearing SVLs had the most progression at 3 years. PALs were effective in slowing progression in these children, with statistically significant 3-year treatment effects (mean ± SE) for those with larger lags in combination with near esophoria (PAL − SVL progression = −1.08 D − [−1.72 D] = 0.64 ± 0.21 D), shorter reading distances (0.44 ± 0.20 D), or lower baseline myopia (0.48 ± 0.15 D). The 3-year treatment effect for larger lags in combination with more hours of near work was 0.42 ± 0.26 D, which did not reach statistical significance. Statistically significant treatment effects were observed in these four groups at 1 year and became larger from 1 to 3 years.
conclusions. The results support the COMET rationale (i.e., a role for retinal defocus in myopia progression). In clinical practice in the United States children with large lags of accommodation and near esophoria often are prescribed PALs or bifocals to improve visual performance. Results of this study suggest that such children, if myopic, may have an additional benefit of slowed progression of myopia.
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