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Ulrich Kellner, Agnes B. Renner, Hilmar Tillack; Fundus Autofluorescence and mfERG for Early Detection of Retinal Alterations in Patients Using Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006;47(8):3531-3538. doi: 10.1167/iovs.05-1290.
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purpose. To evaluate and compare the value of fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) in early detection of retinal alterations in patients using chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (CQ/HCQ).
methods. FAF imaging was performed in a consecutive series of 25 patients with long-term CQ or HCQ treatment (duration, >1 year), with or without visual disturbances. In addition, mfERG was performed in accordance with ISCEV (International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision) guidelines in 23/25 patients.
results. In 10/25 patients alterations of FAF were observed. Mild changes were limited to a pericentral ring of increased FAF. More advanced stages presented as pericentral mottled loss of FAF with increased FAF in the adjacent retina and later on a complete loss of pericentral FAF. In one case, a pericentral ring was observed when ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein angiography were normal. Marked progression of FAF abnormalities was observed during a 3-year follow-up in two of three patients. With the mfERG, pericentral, central, or generalized amplitude reductions were detected in all patients with FAF abnormalities and in an additional four patients with normal FAF.
conclusions. FAF imaging can be reliably used to detect early retinal pigment epithelial alterations in CQ/HCQ retinopathy. Ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein angiography appear to be less sensitive. With the mfERG, more retinal abnormalities were detected compared with FAF imaging.
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