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Willem Maat, Emine Kilic, Gré P. M. Luyten, Annelies de Klein, Martine J. Jager, Nelleke A. Gruis, Pieter A. Van der Velden; Pyrophosphorolysis Detects B-RAF Mutations in Primary Uveal Melanoma. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(1):23-27. doi: 10.1167/iovs.07-0722.
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purpose. Mutations in the genes that control cell proliferation in cutaneous melanoma are generally uncommon in uveal melanoma. Despite the absence of known activating mutations, the RAF-MEK-ERK, or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), pathway is usually activated in uveal melanoma. An assay with increased potential to identify mutations is now available, and this study was therefore conducted to reanalyze uveal melanoma cell lines and primary tumors for this mutation.
methods. Eleven uveal melanoma cell lines and 45 primary uveal melanomas were analyzed for mutations in exon 15 of the B-RAF gene by using pyrophosphorolysis-activated polymerization (PAP). Mutations were validated by sequencing of the PAP product.
results. B-RAF mutations were detected in cell lines OCM-1 and -3 (V600E) and in six primary uveal melanomas. The V600K mutation was detected in one primary uveal melanoma, for which the V600E assay turned out to be sensitive as well. Direct sequencing of the exon 15 PCR product did not reveal the mutations found with the PAP-assay, indicating a low frequency of the mutant allele in primary samples.
conclusions. Because of the very sensitive PAP technology, B-RAF mutations were found in cell lines and primary uveal melanomas, which suggests that they may occasionally play a role in the activation of the MAPK pathway in uveal melanoma and indicates a higher prevalence of B-RAF mutations in uveal melanoma than was reported earlier. However, the relative scarcity of the B-RAF mutation excludes an elemental role for this mutation in uveal melanoma.
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