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Ashok K. Dilly, Raju V. S. Rajala; Insulin Growth Factor 1 Receptor/PI3K/AKT Survival Pathway in Outer Segment Membranes of Rod Photoreceptors. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(11):4765-4773. doi: 10.1167/iovs.08-2286.
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purpose. The authors previously reported that physiological light induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptors (IRs), which leads to the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt (serine/threonine protein kinase B) survival pathway in rod photoreceptor cells. Tissue-specific deletion of IRs from photoreceptors resulted in stress-induced photoreceptor degeneration. Insulin growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is highly related in sequence and structure to the IR and shares 70% sequence identity overall and 84% identity within the tyrosine kinase domain. The role of IGF-1R in photoreceptor function is unknown. In this study the authors examined IGF-1R signaling in rod outer segment (ROS) membranes.
methods. IGF-1R localization was examined in the plasma and disc membranes of ROS. Activation of the IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt pathway was analyzed using specific antibodies against phospho-tyrosine, IGF-1R, and phospho-Akt. PI3K activity was determined in the anti-phospho-tyrosine and anti-IGF-1R immunoprecipitates. Glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins containing two Src homology 2 (SH2) domains of the p85 subunit of PI3K and their mutants were used to study the molecular interaction between IGF-1R and p85. In vivo IGF-1R signaling was studied in rats exposed to physiological light or to constant light.
results. IGF-1R is predominately localized to plasma membranes of ROS. These studies indicate that light stress results in an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of IGF-1R and an increase in PI3K enzyme activity in anti-phosphotyrosine and anti-IGF-1R immunoprecipitates of ROS and retinal homogenates. The authors observed that light stress induces tyrosine phosphorylation of IGF-1R in ROS membranes, which leads to the binding of p85 through N-SH2 and C-SH2 domains. Finally, the authors observed a significant activation of Akt in light-stressed retinas, indicating activation of the Akt survival pathway downstream of IGF-1R activation.
conclusions. Light stress induced the activation of PI3K through activation and binding of IGF-1R, which leads to activation of the Akt survival pathway in photoreceptors.
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