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Holly L. Rosenzweig, Tatsushi Kawaguchi, Tammy M. Martin, Stephen R. Planck, Michael P. Davey, James T. Rosenbaum; Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain-2 (NOD2)-Induced Uveitis: Dependence on IFN-γ. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(4):1739-1745. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.08-2756.
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purpose. Nucleotide oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2) plays an important role in innate immunity to sense muramyl dipeptide (MDP), a component of bacterial cell walls. Notably, NOD2 is linked to eye inflammation because mutations in NOD2 cause a granulomatous type of uveitis called Blau syndrome. A mouse model of NOD2-dependent ocular inflammation was employed to test the role of a cytokine strongly implicated in granuloma formation, IFN-γ, in order to gain insight into downstream functional consequences of NOD2 activation within the eye triggering uveitis.
methods. Mice deficient in IFN-γ, NOD2, or CD11b and their wild-type controls were treated with intravitreal injection of MDP in the presence or absence of IFN-γ. IFN-γ production in the eye was measured by ELISA. The intravascular inflammatory response within the iris was quantified by intravital microscopy.
results. NOD2 activation resulted in the production of IFN-γ within the eye. Deficiency in IFN-γ diminished the development of MDP-induced uveitis, indicating its crucial role in downstream inflammatory events triggered by NOD2. Moreover, exogenous IFN-γ markedly exacerbated MDP-induced ocular inflammation in a NOD2-dependent mechanism. The potential of IFN-γ to enhance inflammation required the adhesion molecule CD11b because CD11b-deficient mice failed to show the synergistic effects of IFN-γ and MDP cotreatment on adhering and infiltrating cells.
conclusions. IFN-γ was identified as a downstream mediator of NOD2-driven inflammation and the capacity of IFN-γ in vivo to enhance the inflammatory potential of NOD2 was demonstrated. Extrapolation of these findings in mice suggests that the dysregulation of IFN-γ may occur in patients with Blau syndrome, thereby contributing to the granulomatous nature of the disease.
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