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Audrey Chia, Mohamed Dirani, Yiong-Huak Chan, Gus Gazzard, Kah-Guan Au Eong, Prabakaran Selvaraj, Yvonne Ling, Boon-Long Quah, Terri L. Young, Paul Mitchell, Rohit Varma, Tien-Yin Wong, Seang-Mei Saw; Prevalence of Amblyopia and Strabismus in Young Singaporean Chinese Children. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(7):3411-3417. doi: 10.1167/iovs.09-4461.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in young Singaporean Chinese children.
Enrolled in the study were 3009 Singaporean children, aged 6 to 72 months. All underwent complete eye examinations and cycloplegic refraction. Visual acuity (VA) was measured with a logMAR chart when possible and the Sheridan-Gardner test when not. Strabismus was defined as any manifest tropia. Unilateral amblyopia was defined as a 2-line difference between eyes with VA < 20/30 in the worse eye and with coexisting anisometropia (≥1.00 D for hyperopia, ≥3.00 D for myopia, and ≥1.50 D for astigmatism), strabismus, or past or present visual axis obstruction. Bilateral amblyopia was defined as VA in both eyes <20/40 (in children 48–72 months) and <20/50 (<48 months), with coexisting hyperopia ≥4.00 D, myopia ≤ −6.00 D, and astigmatism ≥2.50 D, or past or present visual axis obstruction.
The amblyopia prevalence in children aged 30 to 72 months was 1.19% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73–1.83) with no age (P = 0.37) or sex (P = 0.22) differences. Unilateral amblyopia (0.83%) was twice as frequent as bilateral amblyopia (0.36%). The most frequent causes of amblyopia were refractive error (85%) and strabismus (15%); anisometropic astigmatism >1.50 D (42%) and isometropic astigmatism >2.50 D (29%) were frequent refractive errors. The prevalence of strabismus in children aged 6 to 72 months was 0.80% (95% CI, 0.51–1.19), with no sex (P = 0.52) or age (P = 0.08) effects. The exotropia-esotropia ratio was 7:1, with most exotropia being intermittent (63%). Of children with amblyopia, 15.0% had strabismus, whereas 12.5% of children with strabismus had amblyopia.
The prevalence of amblyopia was similar, whereas the prevalence of strabismus was lower than in other populations.
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