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Rajiv Raman, Swakshyar Saumya Pal, James Subrat Kumar Adams, Padmaja Kumari Rani, Kulothungan Vaitheeswaran, Tarun Sharma; Prevalence and Risk Factors for Cataract in Diabetes: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study, Report No. 17. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(12):6253-6261. doi: 10.1167/iovs.10-5414.
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To report the prevalence of cataract and its subtypes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and the risk factors associated with these cataracts.
One thousand two hundred eighty-three eligible subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus, enrolled from a cross-sectional study, underwent examination at the base hospital. Lens opacity was graded by a trained ophthalmologist according to the Lens Opacity Classification System (LOCS) III system.
The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of cataract in the study was 65.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65.6–65.8). Mixed cataracts were more common than monotype ones (41.6% vs. 19.4%). The prevalence of cataract was higher in women, subjects with known diabetes and those with longer duration of diabetes (51.4%, 50.3%, and 64.5%, respectively). The risk factors for any type of cataract were increasing age (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; 95% CI, 1.11–1.16), macroalbuminuria (OR, 4.61; 95% CI, 1.56–13.59) and increasing glycosylated hemoglobin (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.22–3.00); higher hemoglobin (OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.22–0.64) was the protective factor. The risk factors for nuclear cataract included increasing age (OR, 1.15) and high serum triglycerides (OR, 6.83). For cortical cataract, increasing age (OR, 1.14) and poor glycemic control (OR, 2.43) were the risk factors; increasing hemoglobin (OR, 0.41) was the protective factor. For posterior subcapsular cataract, the risk factors included increasing age (OR, 1.11), being of the female sex (OR, 9.12), employment (OR, 9.80), and duration of diabetes (OR, 21.37).
Nearly two thirds of the diabetic population showed evidence of cataract; mixed cataracts were more common than the monotypes ones.
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