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María-Celia Morales, Vanesa Freire, Aintzane Asumendi, Javier Araiz, Itxaso Herrera, Gonzalo Castiella, Iñigo Corcóstegui, Gonzalo Corcóstegui; Comparative Effects of Six Intraocular Vital Dyes on Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(11):6018-6029. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.09-4916.
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To evaluate and compare the effects of the following dyes on human pigmented epithelial cells: indocyanine green (ICG), infracyanine green (IfCG), trypan blue (TB), bromophenol blue (BrB), patent blue (PB), and Brilliant Blue G (BBG).
ARPE-19 cells cultured in vitro were exposed to these dyes, and acute and chronic toxicity were evaluated. Cell viability was measured by colorimetry (MTT assay), morphology was observed by phase-contrast microscopy, membrane permeability (CMP) was evaluated by flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI), and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was measured with 3,3′-dihexyloxacarbocyanine (DiOC6(3)).
Each of the studied dyes exhibited toxicity after acute exposure at surgical doses. The presence of light often reduced cell viability, especially when measured 3 hours after incubation in the case of ICG, TB, BrB, and BBG. Morphologic changes were induced by ICG, IfCG, and BBG. Both CMP and ΔΨm were altered after exposure to surgical doses of ICG, TB, PB, and a fourfold surgical dose of BrB. Chronic exposure to residual amounts of some dyes was associated with reduced proliferation and even cell death.
It appears to be prudent to use the lowest possible dose of each dye, to minimize the risk of toxic effects. This precaution may be particularly important in the case of BrB, which should not be used in excess of 0.5%. In addition, abundant irrigation of the vitreous cavity after surgery to completely remove traces of dye may be of crucial importance, particularly in the case of ICG, in minimizing chronic toxicity.
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