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Johanna M. Seddon; Genetic and Environmental Underpinnings to Age-Related Ocular Diseases. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(14):ORSF28-ORSF30. doi: 10.1167/iovs.13-13234.
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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cataract, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy are common causes of visual loss. Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of these diseases. The modifiable factors related to some of these age-related and visually threatening diseases are smoking, obesity, and dietary factors, and a cardiovascular risk profile. Many common and a few rare genetic factors are associated with AMD. The role of genetic variants for the other diseases are less clear. Interactions between environmental, therapeutic, and genetic factors are being explored. Knowledge of genetic risk and environmental factors, especially for AMD, has grown markedly over the past 2.5 decades and has led to some sight-saving approaches in preventive management.
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