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Gwyneth Rees, Jing Xie, Edith E. Holloway, Bonnie A. Sturrock, Eva K. Fenwick, Jill E. Keeffe, Ecosse Lamoureux; Identifying Distinct Risk Factors for Vision-Specific Distress and Depressive Symptoms in People With Vision Impairment. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(12):7431-7438. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.13-12153.
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To determine the relative importance and associated risk factors of vision-specific distress and depressive symptoms in people with visual impairments.
In this cross-sectional study, 162 adult patients with visual acuity less than 6/12 were interviewed using telephone-administered questionnaires. Vision-specific distress was assessed with the emotional well-being scale of the Impact of Vision Impairment Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Other measures including vision-specific functioning, coping, and social support were also assessed. Multiple regression and commonality analysis were used to determine the relative contribution of factors explaining variance in vision-specific distress and depressive symptoms.
Vision-specific distress and depressive symptoms were strongly associated. Vision-specific functioning (βs = 0.47, P < 0.001), avoidant coping (βs = −0.32, P < 0.001), social coping efficacy (βs = −0.17, P = 0.001), and depressive symptoms (βs = 0.18, P = 0.006) were significant determinants of vision-specific distress. Vision-specific functioning accounted for 37.7% of the unique variance in this model. Vision-specific distress was an important risk factor for depression, accounting for 36.6% of the unique variance in depressive symptoms.
Vision-specific distress is related to a person's ability to manage the practical and social challenges of vision impairment. Further work is required to distinguish vision-specific distress and depression and to examine what interventions are best to target vision-specific distress.
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