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James Loughman, John M. Nolan, Alan N. Howard, Eithne Connolly, Katie Meagher, Stephen Beatty; The Impact of Macular Pigment Augmentation on Visual Performance Using Different Carotenoid Formulations. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(12):7871-7880. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.12-10690.
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To investigate changes in macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and visual performance following supplementation with different macular carotenoid formulations.
Thirty-six subjects (19 male, 17 female; mean ± SD, age 51 ± 13 years) were recruited into this single-masked placebo-controlled study, and were randomly assigned to one of the following three intervention (supplementation) groups: (1) group 1 (20 mg lutein [L] and 2 mg zeaxanthin [Z]); (2) group 2 (10 mg L, 2 mg Z, and 10 mg meso-zeaxanthin [MZ]); and group 3 (placebo). Outcomes measures included visual performance and MPOD response. Data were collected at baseline, at 3 months, and at 6 months.
At 3 and 6 months, a statistically significant increase in MPOD was found at all eccentricities (other than the most peripheral 3° location) in group 2 (P < 0.05 for all), whereas no significant increase in MPOD was demonstrable at any eccentricity for subjects in groups 1 and 3. Statistically significant improvements in visual performance measures including visual acuity and contrast sensitivity with and without glare were observed for group 2 only. Only mesopic contrast sensitivity at one spatial frequency improved significantly by 6 months (P < 0.05) for group 1. No improvements in any parameters of visual performance were observed for subjects supplemented with placebo (P > 0.05 for all).
These results suggest that supplementation with all three macular carotenoids potentially offered advantages over preparations lacking MZ, both in terms of MPOD response and visual performance enhancement.
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