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Judith Lechner, Ha Ae Bae, Jasenka Guduric-Fuchs, Aine Rice, Gowthaman Govindarajan, Salina Siddiqui, Layal Abi Farraj, Shea Ping Yip, Maurice Yap, Manoranjan Das, Emmanuelle Souzeau, Doug Coster, Richard A. Mills, Richard Lindsay, Tony Phillips, Paul Mitchell, Manir Ali, Chris F. Inglehearn, Periasamy Sundaresan, Jamie E. Craig, David A. Simpson, Kathryn P. Burdon, Colin E. Willoughby; Mutational Analysis of MIR184 in Sporadic Keratoconus and Myopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(8):5266-5272. doi: 10.1167/iovs.13-12035.
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A mutation miR-184(+57C>T) in the seed region of miR-184 (encoded by MIR184 [MIM*613146]) results in familial severe keratoconus combined with early-onset anterior polar cataract and endothelial dystrophy, iris hypoplasia, congenital cataract, and stromal thinning (EDICT) syndrome (MIM#614303). In order to investigate the phenotypic spectrum resulting from MIR184 mutation, MIR184 was sequenced in a keratoconus cohort of mixed ethnicity and a Chinese axial myopia cohort.
Sequencing of MIR184 was performed in 780 unrelated keratoconus patients and 96 unrelated Han southern Chinese subjects with axial myopia. Effects of identified mutations on RNA secondary structure were predicted computationally using mFold and RNAFold algorithms. MIR184 amplicons from patients harboring mutations were cloned and transfected into human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells, and mature mutant miR-184 expression was analyzed by stem-loop real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR).
Two novel heterozygous substitution mutations in MIR184 were identified in the two patients with isolated keratoconus: miR-184(+8C>A) and miR-184(+3A>G). Computational modeling predicted that these mutations would alter the miR-184 stem-loop stability and secondary structure. Ex vivo miR-184 expression analysis demonstrated that miR-184(+8C>A) almost completely repressed the expression of miR-184 (P = 0.022), and miR-184(+3A>G) reduced the expression of miR-184 by approximately 40% (P = 0.002). There was no significant association of rs41280052, which lies within the stem-loop of miR-184, with keratoconus. No MIR184 mutations were detected in the axial myopia cohort.
Two novel heterozygous substitution mutations in MIR184 were identified in two patients with isolated keratoconus: miR-184(+8C>A) and miR-184(+3A>G). Mutations in MIR184 are a rare cause of keratoconus and were found in 2 of 780 (0.25%) cases.
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