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Glen Y Ozawa, Marcus A Bearse, Kevin W Bronson-Castain, Wendy W Harrison, Marilyn E Schneck, Shirin Barez, Anthony J Adams; Neurodegenerative Differences in the Retinas of Male and Female Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(6):3040-3046. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-8226.
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The purpose of our study is to determine whether neuroretinal function, measured by the multifocal electroretinogram, differs between males and females with type 2 diabetes and no retinopathy.
This study included 70 eyes from 70 adult subjects (14 control males, 22 control females, 16 males with type 2 diabetes, and 18 females with type 2 diabetes). A template-scaling technique was used to obtain first-order P1 implicit times and N1-P1 amplitudes from photopic multifocal electroretinograms within the central 45 degrees.
The males with type 2 diabetes were significantly more abnormal than their female counterparts in two separate analyses of local neuroretinal function. First, the total number of retinal locations with an abnormally delayed implicit time (z score ≥ 2) was higher (P < 0.001) in the diabetic males (482 locations = 29.2%) compared to the diabetic females (298 locations = 16.1%). Second, in the response topographies that consisted of 103 means of local implicit times for each group, the diabetic males were significantly delayed (P < 0.025) at 23 corresponding positions (22.3%) compared to the diabetic females. At the same time, no corresponding stimulus locations were significantly delayed in the diabetic females compared to the diabetic males.
Neuroretinal function is more abnormal in males than in females for adults with type 2 diabetes and no retinopathy. These results suggest that, relative to males, females may have some protection from, or resistance to, neurodegenerative changes that precede the development of background retinopathy in type 2 diabetes.
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