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Michael Stewart, Maurice Needham, Peter Bankhead, Tom A Gardiner, C. Norman Scholfield, Tim M Curtis, J. Graham McGeown; Feedback via Ca2+-Activated Ion Channels Modulates Endothelin 1 Signaling in Retinal Arteriolar Smooth Muscle. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(6):3059-3066. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.11-9192.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To investigate the role of feedback by Ca2+-sensitive plasma-membrane ion channels in endothelin 1 (Et1) signaling in vitro and in vivo.
Et1 responses were imaged from Fluo-4–loaded smooth muscle in isolated segments of rat retinal arteriole using two-dimensional (2-D) confocal laser microscopy. Vasoconstrictor responses to intravitreal injections of Et1 were recorded in the absence and presence of appropriate ion channel blockers using fluorescein angiograms imaged using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope.
Et1 (10 nM) increased both basal [Ca2+]i and the amplitude and frequency of Ca2+-waves in retinal arterioles. The Ca2+-activated Cl−-channel blockers DIDS and 9-anthracene carboxylic acid (9AC) blocked Et1-induced increases in wave frequency, and 9AC also inhibited the increase in amplitude. Iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of large conductance (BK) Ca2+-activated K+-channels, increased wave amplitude in the presence of Et1 but had no effect on frequency. None of these drugs affected basal [Ca2+]i. The voltage-operated Ca2+-channel inhibitor nimodipine inhibited wave frequency and amplitude and also lowered basal [Ca2+]i in the presence of Et1. Intravitreal injection of Et1 caused retinal arteriolar vasoconstriction. This was inhibited by DIDS but not by iberiotoxin or penitrem A, another BK-channel inhibitor.
Et1 evokes increases in the frequency of arteriolar Ca2+-waves in vitro, resulting in vasoconstriction in vivo. These responses, initiated by release of stored Ca2+, also require positive feedback via Ca2+-activated Cl−-channels and L-type Ca2+-channels.
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