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Shinichi Fukuda, Masahiro Yamanari, Yiheng Lim, Sujin Hoshi, Simone Beheregaray, Tetsuro Oshika, Yoshiaki Yasuno; Keratoconus Diagnosis Using Anterior Segment Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(2):1384-1391. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-10979.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To investigate the tissue properties of keratoconic and normal corneas in vivo by using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT), and to evaluate early keratoconus by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and Mahalanobis distance analysis.
Thirty-one eyes of 20 patients with keratoconus, 7 eyes of 7 patients with keratoconus suspect, and 25 eyes of 25 normal subjects were investigated by PS-OCT and corneal and anterior segment (CAS)-OCT. Average of en face phase retardation of the posterior surface of the cornea, curvature, videokeratographic parameters, regular and irregular astigmatism, pachymetry map, and elevation were measured. The AUROC of each parameter was calculated to evaluate the diagnostic power to detect keratoconus and keratoconus suspect.
While in normal controls, the center of the en face phase retardation map showed low and homogeneous birefringence, in keratoconic corneas the birefringence increased with disease severity. Some keratoconus suspects had apparent high birefringence values without displaying morphologic signs of keratoconus in the anterior surface. The phase retardation values for normal, keratoconus suspect, and keratoconus subjects were, respectively, 0.20 ± 0.06, 0.35 ± 0.06, and 0.50 ± 0.14 radians in 3 mm diameter and 0.29 ± 0.22, 0.33 ± 0.13, and 0.74 ± 0.45 radians in 6 mm diameter. Outer morphological parameters such as curvature, videokeratographic parameters, regular and irregular astigmatism, and elevation showed high AUROCs for discriminating keratoconus from normal controls. On the other hand, using Mahalanobis distance, the AUROC of phase retardation, which represents microstructural properties of tissue, showed high value (0.989–1.000) for discriminating between keratoconus suspects and normal controls.
Average of en face phase retardation of the posterior surface of the cornea was increased in keratoconus patients due to changes in the lamellar structure of collagen fibers. Phase retardation was sensitive with regard to discriminating keratoconus suspect and might be useful for detecting very early or even subclinical keratoconus.
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