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Gwendolyn Gramer, Bernhard H. F. Weber, Eugen Gramer; Results of a Patient-Directed Survey on Frequency of Family History of Glaucoma in 2170 Patients. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(1):259-264. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.13-13020.
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To evaluate in different types of glaucoma frequency of family history of glaucoma (FHG), age at diagnosis, glaucoma risk in relatives, and acceptance rate of genetic glaucoma tests. To assess stage of visual field loss (VFL) in relation to FHG.
Using standardized questions whether an ophthalmologist had found or excluded glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OH), 2170 patients with glaucoma or OH interviewed all their first and second degree relatives. One thousand three hundred thirty-eight patients had POAG, 233 primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), 148 OH, 153 normal tension glaucoma (NTG), 50 pigmentary glaucoma (PG), and 66 pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEX).
Frequency of FHG was 40% in POAG, without significant differences compared with NTG (P = 0.08), OH (P = 0.5), PACG (P = 0.4), and PG (P = 0.6). There were significant differences in age at diagnosis between the glaucomas (smallest between group P < 0.0001). Patients with FHG were significantly younger at diagnosis than patients without FHG in all types of glaucoma (all P values ≤ 0.03), except NTG and PEX. Patients' siblings and mothers had the highest detection probability for glaucoma in POAG and OH. There was no significant relation between stage of VFL and FHG in POAG (P = 0.6). Sixty-eight percent of patients would participate in genetic glaucoma tests.
There is a similarly high genetic disposition in all types of glaucoma. Disease risk was especially high in mothers and siblings. In patients with FHG, knowledge of genetic disposition of the glaucomas may have led to earlier diagnosis. This highlights the need for glaucoma awareness campaigns.
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