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Kei Takayama, Tomohito Sato, Yoko Karasawa, Shunichi Sato, Masataka Ito, Masaru Takeuchi; Phototoxicity of Indocyanine Green and Brilliant Blue G under Continuous Fluorescent Illumination on Cultured Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(11):7389-7394. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.12-10754.
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Wecompared the phototoxicity of indocyanine green (ICG) and Brilliant Blue G (BBG) in cultured RPE cells under fluorescent lamp illumination imitating ambient light.
Cultured human RPE line cells were stained with ICG or BBG solution at concentrations of clinical use, and cultured in a colorless medium for 24 hours in the dark or under illumination from a fluorescent lamp. After culture, cell morphology and TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were observed. Cell viability and cell death rate were evaluated. Absorption spectral changes of BBG before and after incubation were measured.
ICG-stained cells cultured under illumination changed to an oval morphology with increased number of apoptotic cells, whereas ICG-stained cells cultured in the dark, and BBG-stained cells cultured under illumination and dark conditions maintained a flat morphology without increase in apoptotic cells. Cell viability decreased and cell death rate increased only in cells stained by ICG followed by culture under illumination. Staining cells with ICG at one-tenth concentration of clinical usage induced no cytotoxicity after culture under illumination. Approximately 30% of total BBG retained in the stained cells was released into the culture supernatant after incubation for 24 hours. The absorption spectrum of BBG did not change after fluorescent light irradiation.
Illumination with a fluorescent lamp caused cell death via apoptosis in ICG-exposed, but not in BBG-exposed cultured RPE cells. BBG may be a safer dye than ICG because of low light-induced cytotoxicity and rapid elution from stained cells.
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