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Jenny M. Bosten, Ruth E. Hogg, Gary Bargary, Patrick T Goodbourn, Adam J. Lawrance-Owen, John D. Mollon; Suggestive Association With Ocular Phoria at Chromosome 6p22. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(1):345-352. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.13-12879.
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We conducted a genome-wide association study to identify genetic factors that contribute to the etiology of heterophoria.
We measured near and far vertical and horizontal phorias in 988 healthy adults aged 16 to 40 using the Keystone telebinocular with plates 5218 and 5219. We regressed degree of phoria against genotype at 642758 genetic loci. To control for false positives, we applied the conservative genome-wide permutation test to our data.
A locus at 6p22.2 was found to be associated with the degree of near horizontal phoria (P = 2.3 × 10−8). The P value resulting from a genome-wide permutation test was 0.014.
The strongest association signal arose from an intronic region of the gene ALDH5A1, which encodes the mitochondrial enzyme succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH), an enzyme involved in γ-aminobutyric acid metabolism. Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, resulting from mutations of ALDH5A1, causes a variety of neural and behavioral abnormalities, including strabismus. Variation in ALDH5A1 is likely to contribute to degree of horizontal phoria.
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