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Chad Hochberg, Eugenio Maul, Emilie S. Chan, Suzanne Van Landingham, Luigi Ferrucci, David S. Friedman, Pradeep Y. Ramulu; Association of Vision Loss in Glaucoma and Age-Related Macular Degeneration with IADL Disability. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(6):3201-3206. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.12-9469.
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Todetermine if glaucoma and/or age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are associated with disability in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs).
Glaucoma subjects (n = 84) with bilateral visual field (VF) loss and AMD subjects (n = 47) with bilateral or severe unilateral visual acuity (VA) loss were compared with 60 subjects with normal vision (controls). Subjects completed a standard IADL disability questionnaire, with disability defined as an inability to perform one or more IADLs unassisted.
Disability in one or more IADLs was present in 18.3% of controls as compared with 25.0% of glaucoma subjects (P = 0.34) and 44.7% of AMD subjects (P = 0.003). The specific IADL disabilities occurring more frequently in both AMD and glaucoma subjects were preparing meals, grocery shopping, and out-of-home travelling (P < 0.05 for both). In multivariate logistic regression models run adjusting for age, sex, mental status, comorbidity, and years of education, AMD (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, P = 0.02) but not glaucoma (OR = 1.4, P = 0.45) was associated with IADL disability. However, among glaucoma and control patients, the odds of IADL disability increased 1.6-fold with every 5 dB of VF loss in the better-seeing eye (P = 0.001). Additionally, severe glaucoma subjects (better-eye MD worse than −13.5 dB) had higher odds of IADL disability (OR = 4.2, P = 0.02). Among AMD and control subjects, every Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study line of worse acuity was associated with a greater likelihood of IADL disability (OR = 1.3).
VA loss in AMD and severe VF loss in glaucoma are associated with self-reported difficulties with IADLs. These limitations become more likely with increasing magnitude of VA or VF loss.
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