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Seyhan Yazar, Alex W. Hewitt, Lucinda J. Black, Charlotte M. McKnight, Jenny A. Mountain, Justin C. Sherwin, Wendy H. Oddy, Minas T. Coroneo, Robyn M. Lucas, David A. Mackey; Myopia Is Associated With Lower Vitamin D Status in Young Adults. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(7):4552-4559. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-14589.
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To investigate the association between serum vitamin D levels and myopia in young adults.
A total of 946 individuals participating in the 20-year follow-up of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study were included in this study. Ethnicity, parental myopia, and education status were ascertained by self-reported questionnaire. A comprehensive ophthalmic examination was performed, including postcycloplegic autorefraction and conjunctival UV autofluorescence photography. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentrations were determined using mass spectrometry. The association between serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations and prevalent myopia was determined using multivariable logistic regression. Myopia was defined as mean spherical equivalent ≤ −0.5 diopters.
Of the 946 participants, 221 (23.4%) had myopia (n = 725 nonmyopic). Myopic subjects had lower serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations compared to nonmyopic participants (median 67.6 vs. 72.5 nmol, P = 0.003). In univariable analysis, lower serum 25(OH)D3 concentration was associated with higher risk of having myopia (odds ratio [OR] for <50 vs. ≥50 nmol/L: 2.63; confidence interval [95% CI] 1.71–4.05; P < 0.001). This association persisted after adjustment for potential confounders, including age, sex, ethnicity, parental myopia, education status, and ocular sun-exposure biomarker score (adjusted OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.29–3.32; P = 0.002).
Myopic participants had significantly lower 25(OH)D3 concentrations. The prevalence of myopia was significantly higher in individuals with vitamin D deficiency compared to the individuals with sufficient levels. Longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate whether higher serum 25(OH)D3 concentration is protective against myopia or whether it is acting as a proxy for some other biologically effective consequence of sun exposure.
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