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Davide Scollo, Teresio Avitabile, Giulia Malaguarnera, Roberta Amato, Giuseppe Napolitano, Giuseppina Marrazzo, Michele Reibaldi, Antonio Longo, Caterina Gagliano; Changes in cytokine profile with liposomes sprayed on the ocular surface and nasal mucosa. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):106. doi: https://doi.org/.
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To evaluate the effect of sprayed liposomes on signs and symptoms of nasal, pharyngeal and ocular discomfort and to measure the levels of inflammatory cytokines in patients with dryness and allergies.
A randomized, placebo controlled study was conducted on 30 patients with serious symptoms of nasal, pharyngeal and ocular discomfort due to ocular and nasal dryness and allergies. Fifteen patients were treated with a spray liposomes solution loaded with vitamins A and E nebulized (two sprays each) on the nasal mucosa and eyelids, 3 times per day for 3 weeks. Fifteen control subjects were treated with saline in nasal drops and artificial tears for the same period of time. Expression patterns of cytokines (IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α,IFN-γ) were examined in body fluids (tears, Meibomian glands secretion, saliva, and nasal wash) every week. Brush cytology specimens were collected at the beginning and at the end of treatment (after 3 weeks)from nasal and conjunctival mucosa and subjected to PAS and immune-histochemical staining to detect inflammatory cell expression,and quantitative real-time PCR for cytokine mRNA expression.
A highly significant reduction was detected in the inflammatory cytokine levels in tears, Meibomian glands secretion, saliva, and nasal wash of patients treated with the spray liposomes solution in comparison with untreated controls. Control patients showed elevated levels for most of the tested cytokines. For example, IL-1β was found to be elevated 2.75-fold (P<0.001) at the second week and 3.2 at the end (P<0.001) of treatment in control group with respect to the treatment group with spray liposomes. We also found a significant increase (P<0.01) of inflammatory cell expression in control group after 3 weeks.
This study showed the ability of spray liposomes loaded with vitamin A and E to modify the pro-inflammatory cytokine profile after their administration on nasal mucosa, eyelid and ocular surface. This effect could be due to the anti-inflammatory mechanism of the vitamins and also to the barrier effect of liposomes on mucosal surfaces.
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