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Kumari Neelam, Huang Huiqi, Salome Rebello, E Shyong Tai, Jeannette Lee, Rob vanDam, Gemmy Cheung, Ching-Yu Cheng, Tien Yin Wong, Singapore Eye Research Institute; Dietary Fat and Age-related Macular Degeneration in a Multiethnic Asian population: The Singapore Prospective Study Program. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):225.
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To examine the association between dietary fat intake and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in multiethnic Asian population of Singapore.
Baseline data from 4121 study participants in the Singapore Prospective Study Program, a multiethnic (Chinese, Malays and Indians) cohort study, were analyzed. Information relating to dietary fat was gathered using a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire as part of the dietary history. Presence and severity of AMD was assessed on digital colour fundus photographs using the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Grading Protocol. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable regression model to examine the relationship between dietary fat intake and risk of AMD.
The mean age of the study population was 49.44 (± 10.72) years, with a range of 24.62 to 94.87 years. There was slight preponderance of female participants (females = 54.70%; males = 45.30%). Any AMD (early and late AMD) was seen in 108 study participants (5.5%) and was associated with older age (p < 0.001), male gender (p < 0.001) and smoking (p = 0.043). No significant association was observed between dietary fat and any AMD in multivariable regression model after adjusting for age, gender, smoking, body mass index, and ethnicity [total fat: OR = 0.86, CI = 0.48-1.53, p = 0.604; saturated fat: OR = 1.09, CI = 0.62-1.92, p = 0.771; monounsaturated fat: OR = 1.22, CI = 0.69-2.18, p = 0.494; polyunsaturated fat: OR = 0.94, CI = 0.54-1.65, p = 0.833].
Dietary fat was not associated with AMD in this epidemiological study of a large multiethnic Asian population. Differences in AMD risk factors and characteristics between Asians and Caucasians may explain the lack of association.
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