June 2013
Volume 54, Issue 15
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2013
The Effects of Maternal Nutrition and Intrauterine Growth Restriction on Infant Carotenoid Status
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Bradley Henriksen
    Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT
  • Gary Chan
    Pediatrics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT
  • Robert Hoffman
    Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT
  • Mohsen Sharifzadeh
    Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT
  • Igor Ermakov
    Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT
  • Werner Gellermann
    Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT
  • Xiaoming Sheng
    Pediatrics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT
  • Paul Bernstein
    Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships Bradley Henriksen, None; Gary Chan, Abbott Nutrition (F), Abbott Nutrtion (R); Robert Hoffman, None; Mohsen Sharifzadeh, None; Igor Ermakov, None; Werner Gellermann, None; Xiaoming Sheng, None; Paul Bernstein, Kalsec (C), Kemin Health (R), Science Based Health (C), Abbott Nutrition (F), Genentech (C), DSM (R), Sequenom (R), NuSkin/Pharmanex (P), Aciont (C), Thrombogenics (C)
  • Footnotes
    Support None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2013, Vol.54, 3770. doi:https://doi.org/
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    • Get Citation

      Bradley Henriksen, Gary Chan, Robert Hoffman, Mohsen Sharifzadeh, Igor Ermakov, Werner Gellermann, Xiaoming Sheng, Paul Bernstein; The Effects of Maternal Nutrition and Intrauterine Growth Restriction on Infant Carotenoid Status. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):3770. doi: https://doi.org/.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract
 
Purpose
 

Lutein and zeaxanthin are dietary carotenoids specifically concentrated in the human macula that may be important in infant macular and visual development. Infants affected by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may have low carotenoid levels. We evaluated the correlation of carotenoid levels between mothers and their infants at birth.

 
Methods
 

We conducted a prospective, controlled, clinical study comparing carotenoids in mothers, 30 term infants, and 10 IUGR infants. Skin carotenoids were measured with resonance Raman skin devices. Blood and breast milk carotenoids were examined via HPLC. Macular pigment optical density (MPOD) was assessed on a subgroup of 14 infants using RetCam imaging.

 
Results
 

Serum and breast milk carotenoids were lower in the IUGR mothers than controls (P<0.01). IUGR infant skin and serum carotenoids were not different from controls. Mother skin carotenoids correlate with infant skin carotenoids (R=0.48, P<0.01). Mother serum carotenoids correlate with infant levels(R=0.42, P=0.02). MPOD was measurable in all term infants (mean= 0.108). Infant serum zeaxanthin correlates with MPOD (R=0.68, P<0.01). Mother serum zeaxanthin correlates with infant MPOD (R=.59, P=0.03). Infant and maternal serum lutein did not significantly correlate with infant MPOD (P>0.05).

 
Conclusions
 

The depletion of carotenoids in IUGR mothers, but not IUGR infants, suggests a nutrient sparing mechanism. MPOD was measurable in term infants, contrasting with our previously reported lack of detectable MPOD in preterm infants. Infant MPOD correlates with infant and mother serum zeaxanthin, but not lutein, suggesting an important role for zeaxanthin in macular development. Finally, infant carotenoid status is dependent on maternal dietary intake, and serum zeaxanthin may be important for infant macular development in utero.

 
 
RetCam Image of Infant Retina
 
RetCam Image of Infant Retina
 
 
Macular Pigment Optical Density 3-Dimensional Distribution
 
Macular Pigment Optical Density 3-Dimensional Distribution
 
Keywords: 587 macular pigment • 444 carotenoids/carotenoid binding proteins • 556 infant vision  
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