June 2013
Volume 54, Issue 15
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2013
Neurochemical Ablation of Peripheral Glucagonergic Amacrine Cells in the Chick Retina and its Effects on Axial Eye Growth and Refractive Error
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Diane Nava
    Vision Science Group, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA
    Center for Eye Disease and Development, UC Berkeley School of Optometry, Berkeley, CA
  • Alice Chang
    Center for Eye Disease and Development, UC Berkeley School of Optometry, Berkeley, CA
  • Lisa Ostrin
    Center for Eye Disease and Development, UC Berkeley School of Optometry, Berkeley, CA
  • Zhi Chen
    Center for Eye Disease and Development, UC Berkeley School of Optometry, Berkeley, CA
    Department of Opthalmology and Vision Science, Fudan University Eye and ENT Hospital, Shanghai, China
  • Christine Wildsoet
    Vision Science Group, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA
    Center for Eye Disease and Development, UC Berkeley School of Optometry, Berkeley, CA
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2013, Vol.54, 4037. doi:
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      Diane Nava, Alice Chang, Lisa Ostrin, Zhi Chen, Christine Wildsoet; Neurochemical Ablation of Peripheral Glucagonergic Amacrine Cells in the Chick Retina and its Effects on Axial Eye Growth and Refractive Error. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):4037.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract
 
Purpose
 

Several recent myopia studies have pointed to important influences of the peripheral retina on emmetropization. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mini-bullwhip glucagonergic amacrine cells (MBW), which reside mostly in the dorsal peripheral retina of chicks, contribute to eye growth regulation.

 
Methods
 

To ablate MBW cells, an intravitreal injection of 250 ng of colchicine was given at p7 (Fischer et al 2008); control birds received saline injections. The retinal effects of the latter treatment were assessed using in vivo SD-OCT imaging and immunohistochemistry (anti-glucagon labeling) on retinal wholemounts and vertical sections. Retinal function was assessed with flash and pattern electroretinography (ERG). Monocular defocusing lenses (+5D single vision (SV), or multifocal (MF) with a +5 D peripheral power and 4.5, 5.5 or 6.5 mm central zone diameters (CZD), were fitted 5 days after injections, and worn for 5 days. Refractive errors and ocular axial dimensions were tracked using retinoscopy and high-resolution A-scan ultrasonography respectively. Finally, equatorial diameters were obtained from photographs of enucleated eyes.

 
Results
 

Colchicine induced significant retinal thinning in both peripheral and central retina (p<0.01; p<0.05), and significantly reduces the number of MBW in the peripheral retina (p=0.004) without affecting glucagonergic cells in central retina (p=0.449). It also decreased the amplitudes of b and c-waves as well as the Oscillatory Potential 1 in flash ERG recordings; in pattern ERG recordings, the p50 amplitude was reduced and delayed. All lens treatments inhibited axial ocular elongation and induced hyperopia. There was no difference between the responses to SV and MF lenses in colchicine-treated eyes, contrasting with the previous finding that MF lenses inhibited axial elongation more than SV lenses in normal eyes (Liu and Wildsoet 2011). There was no difference in equatorial diameters between control and colchicine groups.

 
Conclusions
 

MBW cells appear to be part of the pathway involved in spatial pattern processing by the retina and also appear to contribute to the response to peripheral myopic defocus. The changes in the c-wave component of the ERG suggest changes in RPE function, which may also contribute to the observed changes in responses to MF lenses.

 
 
Mini-bullwhip cells in the chick retina
 
Mini-bullwhip cells in the chick retina
 
Keywords: 605 myopia • 614 neuropeptides • 691 retina: proximal (bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells)  
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