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Hae Won Jung, Len Zheleznyak, Geunyoung Yoon; Impact of pupil amplitude apodization on through-focus image quality with spherical aberration. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):4266.
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It has long been known that the Stiles-Crawford effect, the intrinsic pupil amplitude apodization of the eye, is effective for enhancing retinal image quality. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact on through-focus image quality (TFIQ) of manipulating the pupil amplitude apodization function in combination with multifocal presbyopic corrections with spherical aberration (SA).
TFIQ with SA was evaluated by optical bench testing and visual performance measurements in monochromatic light (550nm). The optical bench system consisted of a model eye with phase-plate induced SA, a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to control pupil apodization, and a camera for imaging a tumbling E letter chart. TFIQ was quantified by calculating the correlation coefficient between a reference image (without SA and apodization) and captured through-focus images (0 to 2.5D with 0.1D step). Pupil apodization was modeled as a Gaussian function with various sigma values (0.5 to 2.0mm). Through-focus visual acuity was measured in 2 cyclopleged subjects at distance, intermediate and near object distances (0, 1 and 2D). Both optical bench testing and visual performance were carried out with ±0.2µm SA over a 4mm artificial pupil.
Introducing Gaussian apodization improved distance image quality, regardless of sign of SA, by 7-12% for sigma ranging from 0.5 to 2.0mm. At intermediate (1D) image quality, the negative SA case had a larger improvement (9-18%) than the positive SA case (7-11%) for sigma ranging 0.5 to 2.0mm. For near (2D), the improvement with negative SA was even larger (14-33%) while positive SA showed no improvement. Visual benefits with apodization were also found. Pupil apodization with sigma=0.5 led to a 1.0, 2.6 and 4.5 line improvement in visual acuity at 0, 1 and 2D, respectively, in the presence of negative SA. For positive SA, visual acuity improved by 1.0, 1.8 and 0.1 lines, respectively.
Pupil amplitude apodization led to a significant improvement in through-focus image quality, especially with negative SA. This finding suggests that halos and glare induced by multifocal presbyopic corrections can be reduced with appropriate pupil amplitude apodization.
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