June 2013
Volume 54, Issue 15
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2013
Use of multiple metrics to describe the parafoveal cone mosaic
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Marco Lombardo
    Fondazione GB Bietti IRCCS, Rome, Italy
  • Sebastiano Serrao
    Fondazione GB Bietti IRCCS, Rome, Italy
  • Pietro Ducoli
    Fondazione GB Bietti IRCCS, Rome, Italy
  • Giuseppe Lombardo
    CNR-IPCF Unit of Support Cosenza, Rende, Italy
    Vision Engineering, Rome, Italy
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships Marco Lombardo, None; Sebastiano Serrao, None; Pietro Ducoli, None; Giuseppe Lombardo, None
  • Footnotes
    Support None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2013, Vol.54, 5550. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      Marco Lombardo, Sebastiano Serrao, Pietro Ducoli, Giuseppe Lombardo; Use of multiple metrics to describe the parafoveal cone mosaic. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):5550.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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To investigate the distribution of cone density and spacing as well as the preferred packing arrangement of the cone mosaic as a function of retinal eccentricity.


A flood-illumination adaptive optics retinal camera was used to obtain images of the parafoveal cone mosaic in nineteen healthy volunteers. Cone density and spacing were estimated for each subject using a sampling window of 80 x 80 pixels, at 250-, 450-, 650- and 1100-um eccentricities from the fovea along the nasal and temporal retina of both eyes. The inter-subject and intra-subject variation of cone density and spacing were calculated via Coefficient of Variation (CoV). Cone packing arrangement was assessed using Voronoi analysis; calculations were done over 1024x128 pixels image sections of the cone mosaic across the horizontal meridian from 200- to 1050-um eccentricities.


The inter-subject variation of parafoveal cone density ranged between 10% and 15% (P<0.001) and the intra-subject variation of cone density was lower than 8% in all subjects, except for two. The cone spacing values showed a moderate inter-subject (CoV<7%; P<0.001) and a low intra-subject variation (CoV<4% in all subjects, except for two cases). In the parafoveal region, 40% to 50% of cones were hexagonally arranged; the percentage of non-hexagonal Voronoi tiles increased at greater eccentricities.


The use of multiple and complementary metric descriptors allows for a more detailed description of packing distribution and preferred arrangement of cone photoreceptors across the parafoveal retina.

Keywords: 648 photoreceptors • 419 anatomy • 688 retina  

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