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Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Shigeo Yoshida, Shintaro Nakao, Takashi Tachibana, Takahito Nakama, Keijiro Ishikawa, Yukio Sassa, Hiroshi Enaida, Yuji Oshima, Tatsuro Ishibashi; Association of M2 macrophages in the development of fibrovascular membranes in diabetic retinopathy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):5780. doi: https://doi.org/.
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It was recently reported that M2 macrophages play an important role in wound healing, fibrosis and cancer metastasis. However, their role in diabetic retinopathy remains elusive. The purpose of this study was to determine whether M2 macrophages can be detected in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).
We measured the levels of VEGF, periostin and, CD163, a marker for M2-polarization, by sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in vitreous samples collected from patients with macular hole, epiretinal membrane, diabetic macular edema, PDR, and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). The location of CD163 and periostin was also determined by immunohistochemistry.
The mean vitreous levels of CD163 were significantly higher in patients with PDR and PVR than in macular hole patients (P <0.001). There was a significant correlation between the vitreous concentrations of CD163 and periostin in patients with PDR (P <0.001). Immunohistochemical analysis showed colocalization of CD163 and periostin in fibrovascular membranes (FVMs) obtained from patients with PDR.
These findings indicate that M2 macrophages may be involved in the development of FVMs possibly through induction of periostin.
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