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Antoine Labbe, Ya Xing Wang, Christophe Baudouin, Jost Jonas, Liang Xu; Association between depression and dry eye disease in an adult population. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):6025.
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To investigate the association between dry eye disease and depression in an adult population.
The Beijing Eye Study is a population-based study in northern China which included subjects aged 40 or older. In 2006, a random sample consisting of 1957 subjects subjects had dry eye investigations including an interviewer-assisted questionnaire of dry eye symptoms, measurement of tear break-up time (TBUT), slit-lamp evaluation of corneal staining and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), and Schirmer’s test. Dry eye disease was defined as Schirmer’s test ≤ 5 mm and/or TBUT ≤ 10 seconds accompanied by complaints of dry eye symptoms. In 2011, depressive symptoms were evaluated using a Chinese version of the Zung self-rating depression scale (ZDS). Definite depression was defined as having a ZDS of 50 or higher. The association between dry eye disease and depression was evaluated using logistic linear analyses.
From the 2006 random sample, 1526 subjects had depressive symptoms evaluation (78%). In 2011, the mean age of the 1526 participants was 64.66 ± 9.47 years (50-91) and 900 were women (59%). Among them, 244 (16%) had dry eye disease and 142 (9.3%) had depression. The ZDS was significantly correlated to dry eye symptoms (r=0.097; P<0,0001) and TBUT (r=-0.059;P=0.021) but not with Schirmer’s test (r=-0.005; P=0.857), corneal staining (r=-0.014;P=0.581) and MGD (r=-0.038;P=0.134). The risk of definite depression was significantly associated with dry eye diagnosis (OR=1.608), dry eye symptoms (OR=1.853) and female sex (OR=2.58). Using multivariate regression analysis, the risk of depression remained significantly associated with dry eye symptoms and female sex.
Depression is associated with dry eye disease and dry eye symptoms. Chronic dry eye symptoms may worsen depressive symptoms in a susceptible population.
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