June 2013
Volume 54, Issue 15
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2013
In vitro evaporation rate and stability of four marketed artificial tears
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Constanca Coelho
    Genetics Laboratory, Lisbon Medical School, Lisbon, Portugal
  • Fernanda Azancoth
    Genetics Laboratory, Lisbon Medical School, Lisbon, Portugal
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships Constanca Coelho, Thea (F); Fernanda Azancoth, Thea (F)
  • Footnotes
    Support None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2013, Vol.54, 6026. doi:https://doi.org/
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      Constanca Coelho, Fernanda Azancoth; In vitro evaporation rate and stability of four marketed artificial tears. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):6026. doi: https://doi.org/.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose: To assess the in vitro evaporation rate and precipitation of four marketed artificial tears: Purite® 0.1mg preserved sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) 0.5%+glycerin 0.9% (Optive®), Polyquad 0.001% preserved polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 4mg+propylene glycol (PG) 3mg (Systane Ultra®), ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) 0.1% preserved sodium (Na) hyaluronate 0.15% (Opticol®), preservative-free trehalose 3% (Thealoz®).

Methods: 1 ul of each artificial tear was placed on a hemacytometer and allowed to stand, at normal room pressure, temperature and humidity, up to 48h. Drops were inspected under a reverse phase microscope at regular intervals, and photographs were taken at 0h, 5 min, 4h, 6h, 8h, 24h and 48h. All drops were analyzed simultaneously. Evaporation and precipitation percentages were calculated based on the hemacytometer scale.

Results: EDTA 0.1% preserved Na-hyaluronate 0.15% completely evaporated and precipitated after 5 minutes, generating a disorganized lattice of crystals. All other drops showed an initial evaporation at 4h varying between 45.6% and 70.5% (preservative-free trehalose 3% < Purite® 0.1mg preserved Na-CMC 0.5%+glycerin 0.9% < Polyquad 0.001% preserved PEG 400 4mg+PG 3mg), which did not change up to 24h. From 24h to 48h the evaporation percentages increased between 2.1% and 4.5%. The two formulations with preservatives started to precipitate after 4h, reaching between 15.7% and 15.8% precipitation after 48h. The Purite® 0.1mg preserved Na-CMC 0.5%+glycerin 0.9% generated a lattice of crystals with some degree of organization, whilst the Polyquad 0.001% preserved PEG 400 4mg+PG 3mg showed a concentric precipitate with an apparently organized crystallized border. The preservative-free trehalose 3% formulation did not precipitate or crystallize up to 48h.

Conclusions: Given the purpose of any artificial tear is to stabilize the tear film and protect the corneal surface, they should be stable solutions, with a low vapor pressure. Based on the evaporation rates, results suggest that the analyzed artificial tears will remain in contact with the eye surface during a period of time that will follow the order Thealoz® > Optive® > Systane Ultra®, with Opticol® evaporating almost instantly. Thealoz® was the only drop that did not precipitate or crystallize up to 48h, suggesting it is more stable than the other tested drops.

Keywords: 486 cornea: tears/tear film/dry eye • 599 microscopy: light/fluorescence/immunohistochemistry • 503 drug toxicity/drug effects  
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