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Ksenia Keller, Julia Pieter, Daniel Boehm, Norbert Pfeiffer, Franz Grus; Several Tear Protein Levels Of Breast Cancer Patients Differ from Healthy Participants: A Microarray Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):929.
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Currently no molecular biomarkers for early detection of breast cancer (BC) are available. The explorations of cancer proteome revealed several new findings according significant level changes of proteins. Even in the distant body fluids like tears we reported over 20 de- or increased proteins in pooled BC and healthy (CTRL) samples in our previous study. Here we report our additional study regarding individual tear protein profiling using high sensitive antibody-microarray plattform
Tear fluid was obtained from 38 women, whereas 19 of them were diagnosed with primary non-metastasized BC, with the help of Schirmer test. Tear proteins were eluted overnight with 0.1% n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside. Proteins were precipitated and their concentration was determined. 5 µg of labeled proteins from each participant were incubated on microarrays with antibodies against complement proteins, other immune components and high abundant tear proteins. After signal visualization a semi-quantitative comparison of protein levels was performed
We detected several significantly different distributed proteins in BC and CTRL groups. For example, the interleukins IL2 and IL1beta were decreased in BC samples (p=0.025 and p=0.017, respectively). Furthermore we used the artificial neuronal networks to test the discrimination ability of the putative biomarkers. Thus the best combination of biomarkers revealed the sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 100%. An area under the curve of 0.91 was achieved
This pilot study provides more findings to our previous tear protein profiling investigations. Obviously also in other body fluids besides serum and tumor microenvironment several protein deregulations occur leading perhaps to changed signal cascades and aberrant reactions. This study also shows the immediate involvement of immune system, whereas its component levels are changed in comparison to CTRL subjects. Further explorations are ongoing for the verifying the results in a larger study population for establishment of putative BC biomarkers
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