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Wei Chen, Jinyang Li, Qinxiang Zheng; Prevalence and Risk Factors of Dry Eye Disease Among a Hospital-based Population. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):935.
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To investigate the prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) and distribution of associated risk factors among a hospital-based population.
In this clinic-based, cross-sectional study, consecutive outpatients aged above 20 years from May 1st 2010 to May 16th 2010 were screened. Symptomatic dry eye patients screened by questionnaire were then involved with objective tests, including tear film breakup time test, corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining, Schirmer test and slit-lamp examination for assessment of the meibomian gland. Related risk factors were collected by designed questionnaires.
We collected the detailed information of clinically defined moderate to severe dry eye patients among a consecutive hospital-based population, including age trend, gender structure, frequency of symptoms and distribution of associated environmental/occupational risk factors. Of 6657 consecutive outpatients aged above 20 years, symptomatic dry eye present in 635 (9.54%) subjects. 532 (7.99%) out of those 635 subjects were clinically diagnosed as defined DED who combined with positive signs. The prevalence was significantly higher in patients aged 31-50 years (p<0.005) and significantly lower in age group of over 70 years (p<0.001), which demonstrated an inverted U-shaped relationship, which females (10.41%) was significantly higher as compared to males (5.21%) (P<0.001). Overexposure to visual display terminal (VDT) was major risk factor for DED among young men and women (56.2%). High and low risk of occupational exposure to adverse environment accounted for a large proportion, 31.2% and 20.9% respectively. Contact lenses use was closely associated with DED in young women, and history of ocular surgeries might be another factor associated with DED in old people. 163 (43.9%) of 371 female dry eye patients were associated with hormonal changes. The incidence of meibomian gland dysfunction related DED increased gradually with age. There were only 10 (1.9%) dry eye patients were associated with Sjögren's syndrome and all of them were females.
Environmental and occupational factors were strongly associated with DED and constituted the major proportion in a hospital-based population. A classification of DED based on distribution of risk factors was recommended for clinical use.
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