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R J Leigh, D S Zee; Eye movements of the blind.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1980;19(3):328-331. doi: https://doi.org/.
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We investigated a group of patients who were blind because of disease affecting the anterior visual pathways. All subjects showed an inability to maintain steady eye position, with a consequent jerk nystagmus. Blindness from birth was associated with an impaired vestibuloocular reflex and inability to voluntarily initiate saccades, although quick phases of nystagmus were maintained. Acquired blindness was associated with relatively preserved vestibulo-ocular responses and the ability to initiate voluntary saccades and smoothly track self-moved targets. Certain features of the eye movements of the blind are similar to those due to cerebellar dysfunction.
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