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H M Cheng, L T Chylack, I von Saltza; Supplementing glucose metabolism in human senile cataracts.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1981;21(6):812-818.
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Assay of the activities of hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase showed that the first two declined in aging human lens cortex and all three enzymes retained constant activities in the epithelium throughout life. Moreover, both clear and cataractous aging lenses contained the same enzyme activities. ATP contents in cataracts, however, were lower than in clear lenses; in fact, after incubation at 37.5 degrees C in isotonic (290 to 300 mOsm), glucose-containing media, ATP was rapidly lost from cataracts (but not from clear lenses), suggesting excessive ATP expenditure in cataracts for osmotic balance. Cataracts incubated in media containing either glucose-6-phosphate or fructose-1, 6-diphosphate produced significantly higher ATP than with glucose in the media, indicating that glucose metabolism in human senile cataracts could be supplemented with hexose phosphates. Fructose-1, 6-diphosphate appeared to be more efficient than glucose-6-phosphate in preventing lens swelling during incubation.
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