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R Crouch, B R Nodes, J I Perlman, D R Pepperberg, H Akita, K Nakanishi; Cycloheptatrienylidene analog of 11-cis retinal. Formation of pigment in photoreceptor membranes.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1984;25(4):419-428.
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In biochemical and electrophysiologic studies employing the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) and the rat, the authors examined the interaction of opsin and an 11-cis-locked analog of retinal. In previously bleached preparations of bullfrog receptor outer segments (ROS) and isolated retinas, incubation with the aldehyde form (I) of the analog leads to the appearance of a pigment that is degraded slowly by hydroxylamine but is relatively resistant to photolysis. In the ROS preparation, the analog pigment (lambda max of difference spectrum congruent to 497 nm) also forms on incubation with NADP+ and the alcohol form (II) of the analog. In vitamin A deprived rats possessing only approximately 45% of the normal complement of rhodopsin, intraperitoneal injection of II leads within 1 day to the appearance of the analog pigment in the photoreceptors, at levels representing a major fraction of the opsin initially available for pigment formation. Formation of the analog pigment appears to have no significant effect on the sensitivity of electroretinographic b-wave responses recorded from the rat eye; furthermore, administration of II appears to suppress the sensitizing activity of all-trans retinol injected 1 day later. The data are discussed in relation to other studies examining chromophore-opsin interactions and electrophysiologic changes associated with the formation of rhodopsin in situ.
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