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J M Provis, F A Billson, P Russell; Ganglion cell topography in human fetal retinae.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1983;24(9):1316-1320.
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Whole-mounted human fetal retinae of gestational ages 14-40 weeks have been studied. These preparations clearly show the distribution of retinal ganglion cells or their precursors across the retina, and the pattern of the retinal vessels and vessel primordia. The ganglion cell layer is present at 14 weeks of gestation and distribution of cells in this layer (ganglion cell precursors) is at first uniform. Ganglion cell density gradients that foreshadow those seen in the adult retina become evident by about 20 weeks gestation. Both mature ganglion cells and precursor cells are present in retinae at about 24 weeks and precursor cells are still seen in the peripheral parts of the retina at about 30 weeks of gestation. The development of mature ganglion cells would appear to coincide with the establishment of retinal circulation, and proceeds in centrifugal sequence from central retinal.
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