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M S Marx, S M Podos, I Bodis-Wollner, J R Howard-Williams, M J Siegel, C S Teitelbaum, E L Maclin, C Severin; Flash and pattern electroretinograms in normal and laser-induced glaucomatous primate eyes.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1986;27(3):378-386.
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Experimental glaucoma was produced in one eye of five cynomolgus monkeys with the argon laser delivering 100-200 50-mu spots at 1200-1500 mW power and 0.5 sec to 360 degrees of the mid-trabecular meshwork. Monocular electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded prior to and 2, 3, and 4 mo following the laser treatment. In the laser-treated (glaucoma) eyes, normal flash ERGs were observed using 1-Hz stimulation; however, pattern ERGs (PERGs) elicited using steady-state counterphase modulation of a 0.51 cpd square wave grating showed statistically significant reductions of amplitude. Only small reductions of PERG amplitude were seen with a 1.25 cpd grating. In three animals, abnormalities of the PERG occurred prior to clinically significant cupping of the optic nervehead. Moreover, reductions of PERG amplitude were progressive and associated with the magnitude of cupping of the optic nervehead and elevation of intraocular pressure. PERG amplitude did not change following acute reductions in intraocular pressure in the glaucoma eyes. Several control experiments were conducted to insure that results were not due to alterations in pupil size, refractive state, or accommodation in the glaucoma eyes. The authors believe they now have a monkey model for the electrophysiologic study of glaucoma.
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