January 1988
Volume 29, Issue 1
Articles  |   January 1988
A quantitative scoring technique for panel tests of color vision.
Author Affiliations
  • A J Vingrys
    College of Optometry, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210-1240.
  • P E King-Smith
    College of Optometry, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210-1240.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science January 1988, Vol.29, 50-63. doi:
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      A J Vingrys, P E King-Smith; A quantitative scoring technique for panel tests of color vision.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1988;29(1):50-63.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Panel tests of color vision (eg FM100-Hue test) lack a common quantitative method for the scoring of cap arrangements. We describe a scoring method applicable to all panel tests that makes use of a novel technique to analyze test cap data, namely the calculation of a moment of inertia from the Color Difference Vectors (CDVs) of any arrangement pattern. Using the Farnsworth D-15 panel, as an example, we specify how to determine CDVs and demonstrate the benefits of calculating a moment of inertia for the analysis of these vectors. Moment of inertia analysis yields three factors which quantify cap arrangements: the first is the confusion angle which identifies the type of color defect; the second is the Confusion index (C-index) which quantifies the degree of color loss relative to a perfect arrangement of caps; and the third is the Selectivity index (S-index) which quantifies the amount of polarity or lack of randomness in a cap arrangement. A retrospective study on the result of 53 normal and 66 congenitally color defective observers is reported and provides normative data. We show that the technique differentiates between different types of color defect and provides useful clinical information regarding a loss of color vision. Likewise, a similar observation is made on a smaller sample of FM100-Hue results. A BASIC computer program is provided for anyone wishing to use the technique.


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