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D M Krumholz, R S Fox, K J Ciuffreda; Short-term changes in tonic accommodation.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1986;27(4):552-557.
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Experiments were performed to determine the diurnal variation of, as well as the influence of total darkness on, tonic accommodation. In general, under both conditions trend analysis showed that variations in tonic accommodation over time were either nonsystematic in nature or could be best described by a simple linear function. Given the relatively small range of mean tonic accommodation values over time (0.5 to 1.1 D), the results demonstrate the robustness and stability of tonic accommodation under naturally occurring viewing conditions during the course of a day. In contrast, during the 2-hr period in total darkness, tonic accommodation exhibited a three-fold increase in mean range (0.6 to 2.5 D) as well as a significant increasing linear trend in some subjects, suggesting less stability of tonic accommodation in the absence of visual stimuli.
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