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W W Dawson, R D Stratton, G M Hope, R Parmer, H M Engel, M J Kessler; Tissue responses of the monkey retina: tuning and dependence on inner layer integrity.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1986;27(5):734-745.
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Recent technical and conceptual advances have made it possible to experiment with models of local human inner retinal disease and changes in very small, tissue-specific signals. Local retrograde degeneration of the ganglion cells was induced in four rhesus monkeys by 160 degrees microdiathermy fiber layer burns at the nasal or temporal edges of the optic disc. There were no abnormalities of the classical electroretinograms (ERGs) during the following 210 days. With nasal lesions, pattern-evoked retinal (PERR) and cortical responses over a range of grating contrasts and spatial frequencies were largely normal. The authors found a cortical spatial tuning peak near 0.5 cycles/deg (cpd) and a retinal peak at 0.25-0.3 cpd. With temporal lesions, the retinal signals to high frequency stimuli (greater than 1.0 cpd) approached zero between 20-60 days. The cortical evoked signal declined with a course similar to the retinal components. Histological evidence was found for extensive loss of ganglion cells and fibers in a central 30-40 degrees temporal area, including the macula, 210 days after the temporal lesions. This is strong evidence that local ganglion cell-dependent electrical potentials, bearing little relation to the ERG, can be measured in response to selected stimuli.
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