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G N Holland, B I Togni, O C Briones, C R Dawson; A microscopic study of herpes simplex virus retinopathy in mice.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1987;28(7):1181-1190. doi: https://doi.org/.
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ICR white mice were inoculated with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I in the anterior chamber of one eye. Animals were killed at intervals of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days and both eyes were obtained for light and electron microscopic study of retinal changes. HSV retinopathy developed in 42 (91%) of 46 inoculated eyes. Fourteen (88%) of sixteen noninoculated eyes examined after the sixth postinoculation day developed HSV retinopathy. The earliest signs of retinopathy in the inoculated eye were peripheral retinal vasculitis and inflammatory cells throughout the nerve fiber layer on day 2. No virus was found in retinal tissue until day 4, at which time disruption of outer retinal layers (outer nuclear layer and layer of rods and cones) was observed in the peripheral retina. The earliest signs of retinopathy in the noninoculated eye were isolated foci of outer retinal disruption in the posterior retina on day 6. The inflammation accompanying early retinal changes of HSV retinopathy were more severe in the inoculated eye. Electron microscopy of both eyes revealed viral particles in the inner nuclear and ganglion cell layers at the time of outer retinal disruption, but viral particles were seen only rarely in the outer retinal layers at this stage. Early disruption of normal retinal architecture may be due to infection and destruction of Muller cells. The retinopathy progressed in both eyes to total destruction of the retina by day 10. Viral infection of the retinal pigment epithelium occurred, but viral particles were seen only rarely in the underlying choroid. This model may be useful for the study of HSV retinopathy in humans.
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